**Analog Systems and Applications Notes**

In these “* Analog Systems and Applications Notes PDF*”, you will study the concept of semiconductor devices and their applications. It also emphasizes on understanding of amplifiers, oscillators, operational amplifier and their applications.

The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:

**Semiconductor Diodes: **P and N type semiconductors. Energy Level Diagram. Conductivity and Mobility, Concept of Drift velocity.PN Junction Fabrication (Simple Idea). Barrier Formation in PN Junction Diode. Derivation for Barrier Potential, Barrier Width and Current for abrupt Junction. Equation of continuity, Current Flow Mechanism in Forward and Reverse Biased Diode.

**Two-terminal Devices and their Applications: **(1) Rectifier Diode: Half-wave Rectifiers. Centre-tapped and Bridge Full-wave Rectifiers, Calculation of Ripple Factor and Rectification Efficiency, C-filter, (2) Zener Diode and Voltage Regulation. Principle, structure and characteristics of (1) LED, (2) Photodiode and (3) Solar Cell, Qualitative idea of Schottky diode and Tunnel diode.

**Bipolar Junction transistors: **n-p-n and p-n-p Transistors. I-V characteristics of CB and CE Configurations. Active, Cutoff and Saturation Regions. Current gains α and β. Relations between α and β. Load Line analysis of Transistors. DC Load line and Q-point. Physical Mechanism of Current Flow.

**Amplifiers: **Transistor Biasing and Stabilization Circuits. Fixed Bias and Voltage Divider Bias. Transistor as 2-port Network.h-parameter Equivalent Circuit. Analysis of a single stage CE amplifier using Hybrid Model. Input and Output Impedance. Current, Voltage and Power Gains. Classification of Class A, B & C Amplifiers.

**Coupled Amplifier: **Two stage RC-coupled amplifier and its frequency response.

**Feedback in Amplifiers: **Positive and Negative Feedback. Effect of negative feedback on Input Impedance, Output Impedance, Gain, Stability, Distortion and Noise.

**Sinusoidal Oscillators: **Barkhausen’s Criterion for self-sustained oscillations. RC Phase shift oscillator, determination of Frequency. Hartley & Colpitts oscillators.

**Operational Amplifiers (Black Box approach): **Characteristics of an Ideal and Practical Op-Amp. (IC 741) Open-loop and Closed-loop Gain. Frequency Response. CMRR. Slew Rate and concept of Virtual ground.

**Applications of Op-Amps: **(1) Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, (2) Adder, (3) Subtractor, (4) Differentiator, (5) Integrator, (6) Log amplifier, (7) Comparator and Zero crossing detector (8) Wein bridge oscillator.

**Conversion: **D/A Resistive networks (Weighted and R-2R Ladder). Accuracy and Resolution.

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