**Experimental Techniques Notes**

In these “* Experimental Techniques Notes PDF*”, you will study the errors in measurement and statistical analysis of data required while performing an experiment. Also, students will learn the working principle, efficiency and applications of transducers & industrial instrument like digital multimeter, RTD, Thermistor, Thermocouples and Semiconductor type temperature sensors.

The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:

**Measurements: **Accuracy and precision. Significant figures. Error and uncertainty analysis. Types of errors: Gross error, systematic error, random error. Statistical analysis of data (Arithmetic mean, deviation from mean, average deviation, standard deviation, chi-square) and curve fitting. Gaussian distribution.

**Signals and Systems: **Fluctuations and Noise in measurement system. S/N ratio and Noise figure. Noise in frequency domain. Sources of Noise: Inherent fluctuations, Thermal noise, Shot noise, 1/f noise.

**Shielding and Grounding: **Methods of safety grounding. Energy coupling. Grounding. Shielding: Electrostatic shielding. Electromagnetic Interference.

**Transducers & industrial instrumentation (working principle, efficiency, ****applications): **Static and dynamic characteristics of measurement Systems. Generalized perform ance of systems, Zero order first order, second order and higher order systems. Electrical, Thermal and Mechanical systems. Calibration. Qualitative difference between Transducers and sensors. Types of sensors (Physical, Chemical and Biological), Characteristics of Transducers. Transducers as electrical element and their signal conditioning. Temperature transducers: RTD, Thermistor, Thermocouples, Semiconductor type temperature sensors (AD590, LM35, LM75) and signal conditioning. Linear Position transducer: Strain gauge, Piezoelectric. Inductance change transducer: Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), Capacitance change transducers. Radiation Sensors: Principle of Gas filled detector, ionization chamber, scintillation detector.

**Digital Multimeter: **Comparison of analog and digital instruments. Block diagram of digital multimeter, principle of measurement of I, V, C. Accuracy and resolution of measurement.

**Impedance Bridges and Q-meter: **Block diagram and working principles of RLC bridge. Q-meter and its working operation. Digital LCR bridge.

**Vacuum Systems: **Characteristics of vacuum: Gas law, Mean free path. Application of vacuum. Vacuum system- Chamber with roughing and backing, Mechanical pumps (Rotary and root pumps), Diffusion pump & Turbo Molecular pump, Ion pumps, Pumping speed, throughput, Pressure gauges (Pirani, Penning, ionization, cold cathode).

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